The commonest by far of these cascades is the Parks and Greens (P&G) cascade, whereby a station with either 'Park' or 'Green' in its name initiates the cascade (and Green Park naturally counts double). Note however that such play will not always cause a cascade - it is usually obvious from the Line Velocity and Beck's Coefficient as to whether a P&G will ensue, but if there is any doubt then the player should declare the P&G rather than leaving it as an implicit result. Some cascades simply run their course - others are terminated by certain specific moves. Garden stations (Island Gardens, Kew Gardens, Covent Garden, etc.) will by convention terminate a P&G for example, as will Framilode's Bung.
Another form of termination is deflection to a different cascade or loop (see those listed below). This manoeuvre can be somewhat complicated and messy, unless a sky-blue-pink token is played. Unfortunately few people bother to use sky-blue-pinks as part of their 'hand', as nobody has yet found another reliable use for the things (which makes them little more than deadweight when there is no loop or cascade in play), so the Loop/Cascade Shift usually has to be done 'the hard way', which usually ends up going via Dollis Hill. (Not a pretty sight.)
Some other cascades, with a few example stations for each are listed below:-
There are of course various others.